Real-Time Monitoring of Yogurt Fermentation Process by Aquaphotomics Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

We are very pleased to announce that a new article on Aquaphotomics has been published in “Sensors” (Volume 21, Issue 1, December 2020).

“Real-Time Monitoring of Yogurt Fermentation Process by Aquaphotomics Near-Infrared Spectroscopy” by Jelena Muncan, Kyoko Tei, Roumiana Tsenkova.

“Automated quality control could have a substantial economic impact on the dairy industry. At present, monitoring of yogurt production is performed by sampling for microbiological and physicochemical measurements. In this study, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is proposed for non-invasive automated control of yogurt production and better understanding of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation. UHT (ultra-high temperature) sterilized milk was inoculated with Bulgarian yogurt and placed into a quartz cuvette (1 mm pathlength) and test-tubes. Yogurt absorbance spectra (830–2500 nm) were acquired every 15 min, and pH, in the respective test-tubes, was measured every 30 min, during 8 h of fermentation. Spectral data showed substantial baseline and slope changes with acidification. These variations corresponded to respective features of the microbiological growth curve showing water structural changes, protein denaturation, and coagulation of milk. Moving Window Principal Component Analysis (MWPCA) was applied in the spectral range of 954–1880 nm to detect absorbance bands where most variations in the loading curves were caused by LAB fermentation. Characteristic wavelength regions related to the observed physical and multiple chemical changes were identified. The results proved that NIRS is a valuable tool for real-time monitoring and better understanding of the yogurt fermentation process.”

The article can be viewed and downloaded at